Types of Penguins
Emperor Penguins Characteristics
Latin Name: Aptenodytes forsteri
It is the largest of all the species of penguins and can reach more than 1.20 meters in height and weigh more than 40 kg.
Its pelage is bluish gray on the back, white on the abdomen and black on the head and fins. The adult is characterized by having large orange or yellow spots on the sides of the neck. They are well and fatty (have a thick layer of fat), which helps them withstand the cold. His feet have strong claws to grab the ice while riding.
His diet is based on small fish, squid and krill, fish in depths of up to 250 meters. The emperor penguin-can stay submerged for about twenty minutes without breathing. The natural predators of this species include Killer whales, sharks, leopard seals, Antarctica giant petrels and skua.
Today, there are seventeen species of penguins.
Everyone knows what a penguin looks like. It is instantly recognizable because we have grown up with its image– like images in countless children’s books and cartoons characters, on TV advertisements etc.
Penguins are birds, but they can’t fly. Their wings are too short. Their bodies are too heavy.
The bodies of penguins are shaped like submarines. This streaming helps them to cut through the water with ease.
Flying bird bone Penguin bone
Flying birds often have hollow bones that are filled with air. This helps to reduce the weight of their bodies and makes it easier for them to get off the ground. But penguins have solid, heavy bones. This helps to increase the weight of their bodies and makes it easier for them to swim and dive.
Light birds, like the duck above, float high in the water. They can only use their feet to push them when they swim. Heavier penguins float lower, and can use their powerful wings to push them. This is one reason why penguins can swim much faster.
penguin feathers are very small and tightly packed. There are more than 70 feathers per square inch. The feathers overlap and are coated with oil and this makes them waterproof.
A penguin’s wings work like two paddles. They swing back and forth to drive the penguin through the water. Like paddles, the wings are very stiff. They have large flat bones inside them to keep them from bending. The muscles that move the wings are very strong. They are the largest muscles in a penguin’s body.
They spend most of their lives in the ocean. They have smooth, sleek bodies that are perfect for swimming. Penguins have powerful flippers instead of wings. They use their flippers to move quickly through the water. Penguins can swim faster than most people can run.
Every year, old feathers fall out. New feathers grow in.
A long, sleek body helps the penguin move quickly underwater.
Many penguins can hold their breath for almost 20 minutes.
their feet are placed far behind, assume an upright position when they are on land. In each foot has four toes, three of them united by a membrane.
Walking is not something penguins do very well. They waddle from side to side. Sharp claws on the webbed feet grid the ice.
Penguins stand up straight like people because their legs are attached to their bodies at one end. And upright posture is only way they can balance their bodies over their legs.
If penguins leaned forward like other birds, they would fall on their faces.
Penguins have a way of moving fast on land. They just fall on their stomachs and slide like little sleds. To keep moving, they push with their wings and feet, like a skier using poles. This is called tobogganing(tuh-bog–uhn–ing).They can toboggan for many miles.
Like other birds, penguins have no teeth, but they do have tough spikes on their mouth. These spikes are ideal for grasping slippery fish.
The smallest are fairy penguins. They stand about 15” inches (38 centimeters) tall and weigh about 2 pounds(.9 kilograms)
Nearly a third of diving penguin’s oxygen requirement is carried in its lungs and air sacs, with another third or more in its blood and remainder in its muscles.
“Penguins are wonderful long – distance swimmers. They often travel in large groups. As they swim, they pop out of the water to gulp air and then plunge back in again. By doing this they can get the air they need without slowing down. This kind of swimming is called “porposing” because porpoises sometimes swim in a similar way.
Section of penguin skin to show how heat is lost from the surface by the swelling of blood vessels in the blubber and the opening of the feathers.
SkinPenguins have such fine, dense feathers, evenly distributed over their bodies, that the skins have been put to a number of uses in the world of fashion. The Indians of Tierra del Fuego made good use of penguins “whose flesh yielded them food, their Skinners clothing”